• empatia

    Neurobiology of empathy

    Psychology distinguishes between two types of empathy. From the perspective of emotions empathy is the ability to empathize emotional states of other people, but from the cognitive perspective – the ability to understand the beliefs, feelings and intentions of others. Empathy is a complex process, which involves at least two paths: “bottom-up” and “top-down”. The path “bottom-up”…

  • mózg

    The stress response

    The two main biological systems involved in stress response, ie. the sympathetic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), I described in the article Biology of stress. Now a little bit more about corticoliberin, as well as the locus coeruleus in the brainstem, dopaminergic and serotonergic system and the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Corticoliberin (Corticotropin-releasing hormone…

  • komórki mózgu

    What you will not learn about the nervous system at school

    The article presents facts about the functioning of the nervous system, according to the latest research, but not necessarily consistent with the information from textbooks. Only neurons generate the action potential – False According to the textbook knowledge, neurons’ function is to transmit information in the form of electrical stimuli (action potential), and function of…

  • skok spadochronowy

    Skydiving prevents depression?

    French scientists based on skydivers research published in 1999, found that sensation seeking can be an adaptive response to anhedonia, ie. an inability to experience pleasure. The creator of the theory of sensation seeking stated that the physiological basis of sensation seeking is the optimal level of arousal – in patients that achieve high scores in this scale…

  • skok w tandemie

    Time perception during tandem skydive

    The stories of people who during traumatic events seemed that time slowed down or stopped are well known. There are not many scientific studies that investigate the issue, but several scientists investigated this phenomenon in the lab. They showed among other that while viewing a stressful film about a bank robbery, the respondents were under the…

  • lot szybowcem

    Emotions during the first parachute jump and glider flight

    According to the Solomon’s theory Solomon negative emotions are followed by positive emotions because the nervous system seeks to compensate emotions and reach optimal level. The opposite emotion is formed slowly and lasts longer than its original state.

  • endorfina


    Endorphins are opioid peptides, were identified in 1975 and their name comes from the words “Endogenous morphine,” that is produced in the body morphine. Due to the induced state of euphoric endorphins are often called “hormone of happiness”. There are a lot of molecules belonging to the group of endorphins; the most researched is beta-endorphin.

  • religia

    Brain and religion

    The relationship between brain functioning and religious feelings was realised at the end of the nineteenth century, when it was observed that epilepsy is associated with these feelings. In recent years, a new field of knowledge has developed – Neurotheology, which tries to explore the issue.

  • oksytocyna

    Neurobiology of trust

    The main role in trust plays oxytocin – a neurotransmitter and a hormone that also has an impact on stimulating the secretion of milk and starting labor. The role of oxytocin examined Paul J. Zak – professor of economics and clinical neurology, who after examining animal studies found that this molecule may play a role in…

  • neuron

    The role of white matter in learning and mental illnesses

    The nervous system consists of gray matter and white matter. Grey matter is found mainly in the cortex, and is composed of the cell bodies of neurons (“gray cells”). White matter is nerve cell bodies projections (axons), which transmit information from the cell bodies to synapses connecting the neurons to each other. The majority of axons are…